The designations of the day (except el el Juma and Effabt) names of cardinal number in Arabic (First, second …). They all were before Islam and were called then Awwal (first), Awhad (Second) Júbar (third), Dubar (fourth) Mu’nis (fifth), Aruba (sixth) and shiyâr (Seventh ).
Youm el Djouma or al-Jumu’a (our Friday) means “assembly meeting.” This is the most important day for Muslims (as much as Sunday for Christians or the Sabbath for Jews). This is the day par excellence, the day of the assembly of the faithful to prayer. Incidentally, the Jumu’a root is the same as Jama’a which arises is Jami Mosque.
This day is so important that the Qur’an reserves a Surah al-Jumu’a (on Friday) in which we read a verse that says: “O you who believe, when you call to prayer on Friday, hasten to! the remembrance of Allah … “Quran 62.9
Several interpretations to explain the special nature of this day:
– Muhammad, both to establish a day dedicated to divine worship as in the Jewish and Christian religions, and to stand out from them would have chosen the sixth day.
– Before Islam, the Arabs were accustomed to civil meetings on Friday.
– This day is the fact that Muhammad fled Mecca Friday, July 16, 622. In fact, it was a Thursday but as we count the days from sunset on Friday to start 16 evening.
The Islamic calendar with a particular religious vocation we can not finish this study without mentioning religious holidays that are attached.
There are only two canonical celebrations imposed by Muhammad: Ideal-Fitr and Adha A’ïd. The others are optional. Although not a party, the Ramadan fast is also imposed by the Koran.
1 Muharram (Islamic New Year or Hijra): This day is celebrated as the first day of the year but as memories of the beginning of the Hegira.
12 Rabi ‘al-awwa (Mawlid al-Nabi): Birth of the Prophet Muhammad. Established by Sultan Murad III in 1588, it is becoming increasingly important.
15 Rajab (Leilah-al-Ghaïbah) anniversary of the design of Muhammad.
27 Rajab (Leilah-al-Mijaj) mounted the Prophet to heaven.
15 Sha’ban (Leilah-al-Berat) Commemoration of the treatment.
1 Ramadan beginning of the fasting period. Theoretical date: See Annex end of a page for details.
18 Ramadan: commemoration of the Battle of Badr
27 Ramadan (Leilah-al-Qadr): first revelation of the Quran to the prophet.
1 Shawwal (Ideal-Fitr or Eid al-Fitr) the fasting.
10 Dhu al-Hijjah (A’ïd-Adha): Feast of Sacrifice. The first 13 days of this month are public holidays. Its celebration, which lasts three days, commemorates the sacrifice of Abraham. Sacrificed a sheep, a cow or a camel whose distributes part to the poor.
The Hijra is the official start of the calendar in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and the Persian Gulf principalities.
Many Muslim majority countries use both the Muslim calendar and the Gregorian calendar: Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Turkey.
Turkey also uses calendars “popular” varied that will one day be a specific form.
Iran has adopted the solar year with Persian month. It uses the Muslim era while start the year to 21 March. This calendar is specific enough to be a form.
In India and Pakistan, derivatives of the Islamic calendar are in force with Hindus peculiarities.
Appendix: problem of the start date of the fast of Ramadan.
For more information on religious calendars, read the study that is so dedicated here
We’ll make it short on the subject from the strict domain calendars if this is the method to use to determine the beginning of the month.
We have seen that the months are fixed in the Muslim year and the common and abundant years are also in the 30-year cycle. The beginning of each month is, therefore, not necessarily when the first crescent Moon is observed.
We read also: Start fasting on seeing (the lunar crescent) and stop fasting (in light) …. Hadith of Muhammad.
So do not confuse Ramadan (the month) and Ramadan (fasting) because it may well be that fasting because of the observation, begins on the last day of the preceding month whose length is a little “theorized. “The theoretical calculation sometimes encounters empirical observation.
And if we add the fact that the results of observations are not the same from one country to another (because of longitude, latitude and viewing conditions) can only see the various dates start of fasting. Moreover, some stick to the month of beginnings “observed” and not from a rule as we have seen.
Thus, in 2003, began fasting Sunday, October 26 in Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Sudan, and Yemen. However, it was Monday, October 27 in Saudi Arabia, the Arab Gulf states, Algeria.
And France? Prior to 2003, each relied on the Paris Mosque, others to their home countries and others to Saudi Arabia.
We see how that night when we try to see the first crescent Moon is aptly named “night of doubt.”
In 2003, the date of the start of Ramadan was first set for 27 October 2003 by the French Council of the Muslim Faith (CFCM) was born in April 2003.
In 2004, the CFMC has announced the date (Friday, October 15, 2004) on 14 October 2004. This date had been announced on 13 October 2004 by the Union of Islamic Organizations of France.
For the past eight years in France, dates were as follows:
Fasting from start
Date of the “official” calendar calculated
29 Sha’ban 1421H
29 Sha’ban 1422H
1 Ramadan 1423 H
1 Ramadan 1424H
1 Ramadan 1425H
1 Ramadan 1426 H
1 Ramadan 1427 H
1 Ramadan 1428 H
1 Ramadan 1429H
1 Ramadan 1430 H
For 2005, it seems that this is still the Union of Islamic Organizations of France, who announced Oct. 3 start date of Ramadan to 4 October 2005 following, it seems “the decision of the Executive Office of the CFCM” . I believe The Executive Office of the French Muslim Council was to meet at the Paris Mosque on 29 Shaaban 1426 (3 October 2005).
So, observation or calculation for the start of the month and the beginning of the fast? The question is even asked.
In this regard, I give you a statement of 24/11/2000 which rests the question and give a half fig half grape answer:
“The European Council for Fatwa and Research has studied the issue of the day of commencement of fasting and that of his break for the year 1421. The Board reiterates its decision that it has issued during the third session that took place in Cologne, Germany from 19 to 22 May 1999.
On the occasion of this session, the Board addressed the issue of the means to be adopted to determine the beginning of the lunar month, especially because of Ramadan fasting and Shawwal due to the breaking of the fast and the role of astronomical calculations in this determination . Board members have addressed both the scientific side that the case side.
During the discussion, emerged several points of views:
1. Those who advocate the use of astronomical calculations exclusively and systematically.
2. Those who categorically refuse the use of astronomical calculations.
3. Those who would resort to astronomical calculations not to announce the new moon but to counter a visual statement to be incorrect the same calculation.
4. Those who opt for aligning the first country where the observation of the new moon would have occurred even if inconsistent with astronomical calculations.
The Board conducted an exhaustive deliberation of all these points of views. It has come to the following conclusion, according to what he has decided in its last meeting held in Dublin, Ireland:
The beginning or end of Ramadan is determined by visual means, either with the naked eye or through an observation instrument. This observation is admissible regardless of the Muslim country where it took place, according to the authentic hadith that says’ fast when you see the moon (of Ramadan) and break as soon as you see it (the moon of Shawwal announcing the end Ramadan) ‘, provided astronomical calculations tell us that the vision is possible somewhere on the globe. If according to the calculations, no observation of the new moon is possible, any statement of vision will be barred. Eyewitness testimony is not affirmative, it may be the result of the illusion, error or lie. There remain conjectural order, unlike the astronomical calculations that are affirmative. The conjectural can match the affirmative, much less counter, and the scholarly consensus.
The council insists it advocates the use of astronomical calculations and not scientifically established astrological calculations are condemned religiously, nor the dates on the well known calendars that exist in Muslim countries, as some seem to believe Muslim scholars. By astronomical calculations, we mean the result of contemporary astronomy based on deterministic mathematical basis. This science which reached its climax in our day and allowed the man to go to the moon and other planets and in which are shown to many of our Muslim scholars from all countries … “